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Topic: What Anella has been attempting to suppress  (Read 1138 times)

walksalone11

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What Anella has been attempting to suppress
« on: August 31, 2010, 04:41:16 pm »
It is often stated that America was founded with the premise of religious freedom.

Well, let's examine that statement a little bit.

When explorers came seeking new lands to claim they did so under the guidence and principles of a christian doctrine known as "The doctrine of Discovery.

Latter when fledgling America wanted to broaden their landbase and influane, another doctrine was instituted knowncommonly as "Manifest Destiny".

What do these doctrines entail....well let's study them each seperatly.




Doctrine of Discovery

http://www.danielnpaul.com/DoctrineOfDiscovery.html



THE DOCTRINES DECREED BY ROMAN CATHOLIC POPES, begining in 1452, were adopted by European Christian Nations for the purpose of providing them a legal cover to pillage and destroy non-White Civilizations around the World, whose citizens were indiscriminately slaughtered by the tens of thousands, enslaved, raped, and dehumanized. Daniel N. Paul

********************

SOURCE: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The origins of the doctrine can be traced to Pope Nicholas V's issuance of the Papal Bull Romanus Pontifex in 1452. The bull allowed Portugal to claim and conquer lands in West Africa. Pope Alexander VI extended to Spain the right to conquer newly-found lands in 1493, with the papal bull Inter caetera, after Christopher Columbus had already begun doing so. Arguments between Portugal and Spain led to the Treaty of Tordesillas which clarified that only non-Christian lands could thus be taken, as well as drawing a line of demarcation to allocate potential discoveries between the two powers.

United States law

According to the United States Supreme Court's decision in Johnson v. M'Intosh, this theory of Christian expansion and possession of newly discovered lands, despite native presence, was one by which all colonial powers operated. Chief Justice Marshall, writing the decision, held that the United Kingdom had taken title to the lands which constituted the United States when the British discovered them. Marshall pointed to the exploration charters given to John Cabot as proof that the British had operated under the doctrine.[2] The tribes which occupied the land were, at the moment of discovery, no longer completely sovereign and had no property rights but rather merely held a right of occupancy. Further, only the discovering nation or its successor could take possession of the land from the natives by conquest or purchase. Natives could not sell the land to private citizens but only to the discovering government.[1]

The doctrine was used in numerous other cases as well. With Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, it supported the concept that tribes were not independent states but "domestic dependent nations".[2] The decisions in Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribe and Duro v. Reina used the doctrine to prohibit tribes from criminally prosecuting first non-Indians, then Indians who weren't a member of the prosecuting tribe.[3]

********************

Source: First Nations History - We Were Not the Savages - Third Edition (2006)

The Doctrine of Discovery was used when France first claimed the land of the Mi'kmaq, which they christened Acadia. Marc Lescarbot, a French lawyer, articulated this warped Christian law in 1618 in his explanation of France's right to Acadia (now the Canadian Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island):

    "The earth pertaining, then, by divine right to the children of God [Christians], there is here
    no question of applying the law and policy of Nations, by which it would not be permissible
    to claim the territory of another. This being so, we must possess it and preserve its natural
    inhabitants, and plant therein with determination the name of Jesus Christ, and of France."

    ********************

    The following is the wording of the 1493 Bull

    The Bull Inter Caetera
    Pope Alexander VI
    May 4, 1493

    Alexander, bishop, servant of the servants of God. To the illustrious sovereigns, our very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, king, and our very dear daughter in Christ, Isabella, queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, and Granada, health and apostolic benediction.

    Among other works, well pleasing to the Divine Majesty and cherished of our heart, this assuredly ranks highest, that in our times especially the Catholic faith and the Christian religion be exalted and be everywhere increased and spread, that the health of souls be cared for and that barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself.

    Wherefore inasmuch as by the favor of divine clemency, we, though of insufficient merits, have been called to this Holy See of Peter, recognizing that as true Catholic kings and princes, such as we have known you always to be, and as your illustrious deeds already known to almost the whole world declare, you not only eagerly desire but with every effort, zeal, and diligence, without regard to hardships, expenses, dangers, with the shedding even of your blood, are laboring to that end; recognizing also that you have long since dedicated to this purpose your whole soul and all your endeavors--as witnessed in these times with so much glory to the Divine Name in your recovery of the kingdom of Granada from the yoke of the Saracens--we therefore are rightly led, and hold it as our duty, to grant you even of our own accord and in your favor those things whereby with effort each day more hearty you may be enabled for the honor of God himself and the spread of the Christian rule to carry forward your holy and praiseworthy purpose so pleasing to immortal God.

    We have indeed learned that you, who for a long time had intended to seek out and discover certain islands and main lands remote and unknown, and not hitherto discovered by others, to the end that you might bring to the worship of our Redeemer and the profession of the Catholic faith their residents and inhabitants, having been up to the present time greatly engaged in the siege and recovery of the kingdom itself of Granada were unable to accomplish this holy and praiseworthy purpose; but the said kingdom having at length been regained, as was pleasing to the Lord, you, with the wish to fulfill your desire, chose our beloved son, Christopher Columbus, a man assuredly worthy, and of the highest recommendations and fitted for so great an undertaking, whom you furnished with ships and men equipped for like designs, not without the greatest hardships, dangers, and expenses, to make diligent quest for these remote and unknown main-lands and islands through the sea, where hitherto no one had sailed; and they at length, with divine aid and with the utmost diligence sailing in the ocean sea, discovered certain very remote islands and even main-lands that hitherto had not been discovered by others; wherein dwell very many peoples living in peace, and, as reported, going unclothed, and not eating flesh.

    Moreover, as your aforesaid envoys are of opinion, these very peoples living in the said islands and countries believe in one God, the Creator in heaven, and seem sufficiently disposed to embrace the Catholic faith and be trained in good morals. And, it is hoped that, were they instructed, the name of the Savior, our Lord Jesus Christ, would easily be introduced into the said countries and islands. Also, on one of the chief of these aforesaid islands, the said Christopher has already caused to be put together and built a fortress fairly equipped, wherein he has stationed as garrison certain Christians, companions of his, who are to make search for other remote and unknown islands and main-lands.

    In the islands and countries already discovered are found gold, spices, and very many other precious things of divers kinds and qualities. Wherefore, as becomes Catholic kings and princes, after earnest consideration of all matters, especially of the rise and spread of the Catholic faith, as was the fashion of your ancestors, kings of renowned memory, you have purposed with the favor of divine clemency to bring under your sway the said main-lands and islands, with their residents and inhabitants, and to bring them to the Catholic faith.

    Hence, heartily commending in the Lord this your holy and praiseworthy purpose, and desirous that it be duly accomplished, and that the name of our Savior be carried into those regions, we exhort you very earnestly in the Lord, and by your reception of holy baptism, whereby you are bound to our apostolic commands, and by the bowels of the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, enjoy strictly, that inasmuch as with eager zeal for the true faith you design to equip and despatch this expedition, you purpose also, as is your duty, to lead the peoples dwelling in those islands and countries to embrace the Christian religion; nor at any time let dangers or hardships deter you there from, with the stout hope and trust in your hearts that Almighty God will further your undertakings.

    And, in order that you may enter upon so great an undertaking with greater readiness and heartiness, endowed with benefit of our apostolic favor, we, of our own accord, not at your instance, nor the request of anyone else in your regard, but out of our own sole largess and certain knowledge, and out of the fullness of our apostolic power, by the authority of Almighty God conferred upon us in blessed Peter, and of the vicarship of Jesus Christ, which we hold on earth, do by tenor of these presents, should any of said islands have been found by your envoys and captains, give, grant, and assign to you and your heirs and successors, kings of Castile and Leon, forever, together with all their dominions, cities, camps, places, and villages, and all rights, jurisdictions, and appurtenances, all islands and main-lands found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole, namely the north, to the Antarctic pole, namely the south, no matter whether the said main-lands and islands are found and to be found in the direction of India, or towards any other quarter, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde.

    With this proviso however, that none of the islands and main-lands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, beyond that said line towards the west and south, be in the actual possession of any Christian king or prince up to the birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ just past, from which the present year one thousand four hundred ninety-three begins.

    And we make, appoint, and depute you and your said heirs and successors lords of them with full and free power, authority, and jurisdiction of every kind; with this proviso however, that by this our gift, grant, and assignment no right acquired by any Christian prince, who may be in actual possession of said islands and main-lands prior to the said birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ, is hereby to be understood to be withdrawn or taking away.

    Moreover we command you, in virtue of holy obedience that, employing all due diligence in the premises, as you also promise--nor do we doubt your compliance therein in accordance with your loyalty and royal greatness of spirit--you should appoint to the aforesaid main-lands and islands worthy, God-fearing, learned, skilled, and experienced men, in order to instruct the aforesaid inhabitants and residents in the Catholic faith and train them in good morals.

    Furthermore, under penalty of excommunication late sententie to be incurred ipso facto, should anyone thus contravene, we strictly forbid all persons of whatsoever rank, even imperial and royal, or of whatsoever estate, degree, order, or condition, to dare without your special permit, or that of your aforesaid heirs and successors, to go for the purpose of trade or any other reason to the islands or main-lands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole to the Antarctic pole, no matter whether the main-lands and islands, found and to be found, lie in the direction of India or toward any other quarter whatsoever, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south, as is aforesaid, from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde; apostolic constitutions and ordinances and other decrees whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding.

    We trust in Him, from whom empires and governments and all good things proceed, that, should you, with the Lord's guidance, pursue this holy and praiseworthy undertaking, in a short while your hardships and endeavors will attain the most felicitous result, to the happiness and glory of all Christendom. But inasmuch as it would be difficult to have these present letters sent to all places where desirable, we wish, and with similar accord and knowledge do decree, that copies of them, signed by the hand of a public notary commissioned therefor, and sealed with the seal of any ecclesiastical officer or ecclesiastical court, the same respect is to be shown in court and outside as well as anywhere else as would be given to these presents should they thus be exhibited or shown. Let no one, therefore, infringe, or with rash boldness contravene, this our recommendation, exhortation, requisition, gift, grant, assignment, constitution, deputation, decree, mandate, prohibition, and will. Should anyone presume to attempt this, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul.

    Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord one thousand four hundred and ninety-three, the fourth of May, and the first year of our pontificate.

    Gratis by order of our holy lord, the pope.

    June. For the referendary, For J. Bufolinus.

    A. de Mucciarellis. A. Santoseverino.

    L. Podocatharus.






walksalone11

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Re: What Anella has been attempting to suppress
« Reply #1 on: August 31, 2010, 04:44:25 pm »
So yes, we all have the chance to enjoy freedom of religion, but only, if we choose the "appropriate religion,

Now lets examine "Manifest Destiny".....



Manifest destiny
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manifest_Destiny


This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress, is an allegorical representation of the modernization of the new west. Here Columbia, intended as a personification of the United States, leads civilization westward with American settlers, stringing telegraph wire as she travels; she holds a school book. The different economic activities of the pioneers are highlighted and, especially, the changing forms of transportation. The Native Americans and wild animals flee.





Manifest Destiny was the 19th century American belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. It was used by Democrats in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico; the concept was denounced by Whigs, and fell into disuse after the mid 1850s.

Advocates of Manifest Destiny believed that expansion was not only wise but that it was readily apparent (manifest) and inexorable (destiny).

The term, which first appeared in print in 1839, was used in 1845 by a New York journalist, John L. O'Sullivan, to call for the annexation of Texas.[1] It was primarily used by Democrats to support the expansion plans of the Polk Administration, but opposed by Whigs who wanted to deepen the economy rather than broaden its expanse. It fell out of favor by 1860.[2]

The belief in an American mission to promote and defend democracy throughout the world, as expounded by Woodrow Wilson, continues to have an influence on American political ideology.[3]

[edit] Context and interpretations

Manifest Destiny was always a general notion rather than a specific policy. The term combined a belief in expansionism with other popular ideas of the era, including American exceptionalism, Romantic nationalism, and a belief in the natural superiority of what was then called the "Anglo-Saxon race". While many writers focus primarily upon American expansionism when discussing Manifest Destiny, others see in the term a broader expression of a belief in America's "mission" in the world, which has meant different things to different people over the years. This variety of possible meanings was summed up by Ernest Lee Tuveson, who wrote:

    A vast complex of ideas, policies, and actions is comprehended under the phrase 'Manifest Destiny'. They are not, as we should expect, all compatible, nor do they come from any one source.[4]

John L. O'Sullivan, sketched in 1874, was an influential columnist as a young man, but is now generally remembered only for his use of the phrase "Manifest Destiny" to advocate the annexation of Texas and Oregon.

Journalist John L. O'Sullivan, an influential advocate for the Democratic Party, wrote an article in 1839 which, while not using the term "Manifest Destiny", did predict a "divine destiny" for the United States based upon values such as equality, rights of conscience, and personal enfranchisement-- "to establish on earth the moral dignity and salvation of man". This destiny was not explicitly territorial, but O'Sullivan predicted that the United States would be one of a "Union of many Republics" sharing those values.[5]

Six years later O'Sullivan wrote another essay which first used the phrase Manifest Destiny. In 1845, he published a piece entitled Annexation in the Democratic Review,[6] in which he urged the United States to annex the Republic of Texas, not only because Texas desired this, but because it was "our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions".[7] Amid much controversy, Texas was annexed shortly thereafter, but O'Sullivan's first usage of the phrase "Manifest Destiny" attracted little attention.[8]

O'Sullivan's second use of the phrase became extremely influential. On December 27, 1845 in his newspaper the New York Morning News, O'Sullivan addressed the ongoing boundary dispute with the United Kingdom in the Oregon Country. O'Sullivan argued that the United States had the right to claim "the whole of Oregon":

    And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us.[9]

That is, O'Sullivan believed that Providence had given the United States a mission to spread republican democracy ("the great experiment of liberty") throughout North America. Because Britain would not use Oregon for the purposes of spreading democracy, thought O'Sullivan, British claims to the territory should be overruled. O'Sullivan believed that Manifest Destiny was a moral ideal (a "higher law") that superseded other considerations.[10]

O'Sullivan's original conception of Manifest Destiny was not a call for territorial expansion by force. He believed that the expansion of the United States would happen without the direction of the U.S. government or the involvement of the military. After "Anglo-Saxons" emigrated to new regions, they would set up new democratic governments, and then seek admission to the United States, as Texas had done. In 1845, O'Sullivan predicted that California would follow this pattern next, and that Canada would eventually request annexation as well. He disapproved of the outbreak of the Mexican-American War in 1846, although he came to believe that the outcome would be beneficial to both countries.[11]

Ironically, O'Sullivan's term became popular only after it was criticized by Whig opponents of the Polk administration. On January 3, 1846, Representative Robert Winthrop ridiculed the concept in Congress, saying "I suppose the right of a manifest destiny to spread will not be admitted to exist in any nation except the universal Yankee nation." Winthrop was the first in a long line of critics who suggested that advocates of Manifest Destiny were citing "Divine Providence" for justification of actions that were motivated by chauvinism and self-interest. Despite this criticism, expansionists embraced the phrase, which caught on so quickly that its origin was soon forgotten. O'Sullivan died in obscurity in 1895, just as his phrase was being revived. In 1927, a historian determined that the phrase had originated with him.

walksalone11

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Re: What Anella has been attempting to suppress
« Reply #2 on: September 01, 2010, 04:14:36 pm »
bump.....

Falconer02

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Re: What Anella has been attempting to suppress
« Reply #3 on: September 01, 2010, 04:37:47 pm »
I plan to read this sometime tonight-- I'll respond quicker if it gets knocked down the thread list.

AmyTrivitt

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Re: What Anella has been attempting to suppress
« Reply #4 on: September 01, 2010, 04:40:20 pm »
So yes, we all have the chance to enjoy freedom of religion, but only, if we choose the "appropriate religion"


Yap

freepcmoney

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Re: What Anella has been attempting to suppress
« Reply #5 on: September 01, 2010, 10:21:47 pm »
WOW, this is some serious stuff. I'll have to get back to this when I am doing some serious drinking and some serious thinking. Don't want to blow up my pea brain, Now.

SurveyMack10

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Re: What Anella has been attempting to suppress
« Reply #6 on: September 01, 2010, 10:34:52 pm »
wow, great title. pfft.

Annella

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Re: What Anella has been attempting to suppress
« Reply #7 on: September 02, 2010, 12:49:16 am »
wow, great title. pfft.

At least spell my name correctly in the Title......it's two n's.......

SurveyMack10

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Re: What Anella has been attempting to suppress
« Reply #8 on: September 02, 2010, 01:03:14 pm »
wow, great title. pfft.

At least spell my name correctly in the Title......it's two n's.......
just goes to show how too many people on this forum are more worried about talking down to others than addressing the issues

jordandog

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Re: What Anella has been attempting to suppress
« Reply #9 on: September 02, 2010, 03:06:19 pm »
wow, great title. pfft.

At least spell my name correctly in the Title......it's two n's.......
just goes to show how too many people on this forum are more worried about talking down to others than addressing the issues
Maybe I am reading or taking this the wrong way here, but you quoted Annella and then made the statement with "more worried about talking down to others than addressing the issues". I am interpreting that as directed at Annella. Am I correct, because if I am, I find that one very interesting!
You are entitled to your own opinion, but you are not entitled to your own facts.

SurveyMack10

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Re: What Anella has been attempting to suppress
« Reply #10 on: September 02, 2010, 05:47:05 pm »
wow, great title. pfft.

At least spell my name correctly in the Title......it's two n's.......
just goes to show how too many people on this forum are more worried about talking down to others than addressing the issues
Maybe I am reading or taking this the wrong way here, but you quoted Annella and then made the statement with "more worried about talking down to others than addressing the issues". I am interpreting that as directed at Annella. Am I correct, because if I am, I find that one very interesting!

I absolutely was not directing that towards Annella. Look at the title of this thread and how absolutely unnecessary it is. It is solely an attempt to degrade someone who did not even provoke. In fact, Annella turned the other cheek and said she simply wasn't going to respond to walksalone to avoid things like this. And instead of having the same maturity he feels the need to ATTEMPT to make a mockery of her on this thread, instead only making one of himself.

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